Non-destructive testing of computer components
This article discusses non-destructive testing (NDT) methods applied to computer components, used for industrial safety and quality assurance purposes.
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What is non-destructive testing?
Non-destructive testing is a means of evaluating surface or interior defects or mechanical conditions of a material or component without compromising the component’s or material’s serviceability. There are several approaches to evaluating components and materials based on their stage of deployment.
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) or Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is the detection and characterization of flaws or defects on the exterior and interior of components without slicing or otherwise modifying the substance.
In other words, NDT relates to the procedure of evaluation, evaluation and inspection of materials/components to characterize or detect faults and defects against particular criteria without modifying the original characteristics. nor injure the thing examined.
NDT techniques enable or provide a cost-effective method of testing a sample for individual research and inspection, or they can be used on the entire molecule for verification in a manufacturing quality management system.
Applications of non-destructive testing
In many circumstances, the way to discover a deficiency requires the use of more than one NDT method. This may require a series of strategies as well as exploratory and invasive openings.
A better understanding of the origins, benefits and limitations of each NDE approach is essential to effective evaluation. Mastery of a single NDT approach may not be sufficient to guarantee the effectiveness of the resolution of the situation in question. A wide range of non-destructive testing procedures is crucial in the evaluation of synthetic structures.
Composite NDTs have a wide range of applications including manufacturing, computer components, pipeline and cylinder manufacturing, storage facilities, aviation, military and aerospace, nuclear and characterization of composite defects.
Several non-destructive testing methods
Composite materials can be damaged during micromachining, part manufacturing, or in-service operations, with fractures, permeability, and delamination being the most common defects.
X-ray inspection, visual test (VT) or visual inspection (VI), ultrasonic test, thermal imaging test, infrared thermography test, acoustic wave emission (AE) test, acoustic-ultrasonic test, electromagnetic test, optical testing, penetrant testing and magnetic particle inspection are all used in the fiberglass NDT field.
Any device that can be tasked with executing a set of mathematical programs and commands is called a computing device or computer.
Further reading: Non-destructive testing in the textile industry
Whether it’s a supercomputer or a basic home PC, the five major components that make up a typical modern computer are a motherboard, a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU ) also called a video card, a random access memory (RAM) and a storage device, which can be a solid state drive (SSD) or a hard disk drive (HDD). Specific functional software is required to operate these hardware components to perform the required calculations and functions.
What is Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT)?
Computers are used to operate analog or digital test methodologies to assess the effectiveness of parts and products. Computer-aided testing is used to ensure that components, modules, and entire systems conform to defined specifications and function as intended.
It should be noted that meeting specifications may require the component or network to operate in adverse environments that would not be encountered in normal operation. Computer-aided test parameters (test criteria) are often obtained from computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies.
CND of Automotive Computers
Quality control/assurance in the automotive sector has often relied on mechanical assessment and evaluation. Electronic control units (ECUs), commonly referred to as “car computers”, perform the control operations. ECUs are made up of multiple parts that combine data from different sensors throughout the vehicle.
Monitoring the performance of ECUs and other electrical devices is very essential. This requirement is met by non-destructive X-ray testing, which images the internal architecture of computers without dismantling the equipment. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) devices, in particular, can determine the three-dimensional positions of small areas of interest in automotive computers using detailed information.
Eddy current testing of computer components
Eddy current testing is a typical NDT approach for computer parts used in conventional and automated test environments. It is based on the concept of electromagnetism. When a computer part or hardware fails, consumption levels increase.
The eddy current must travel a greater distance, increasing resistance and causing higher current consumption. The variation in the use of eddy currents on various cross-sections of semiconductor components in computers can be used to locate and size the fault. Eddy current instrumentation, which may include electromagnetic sensors, current fault monitors, ECT conductance meters, and other equipment, is used for this type of nondestructive evaluation.
Limitations of Non-Destructive Testing for Computer IC Packaging
The speed and capacity of integrated circuit (IC) packages in computers have increased dramatically as the dimensions of printed circuit boards in computers have been reduced from m to nm. Even though nanotechnology has evolved following several useful breakthroughs, some limitations of NDT techniques persist.
For the scanning acoustic microscopy technique, perfect sharpness and layer thickness are still not achievable at the same time, and inadequate sensitivity to edge defects is a big problem. Other CND techniques also have problems, such as random fluctuations, surface texture, overheating issues, penetration issues, and long response time.
Although these problems are very serious, some recommendations could help alleviate some of these limitations. An efficient online monitoring system during the manufacture of computer components could be helpful in reducing lengthy operational procedures.
The most likely answer to current problems is to use hybrid approaches in conjunction with good modeling. Another suggestion is to integrate mathematical analysis with NDT techniques such as X-ray and SAM, as well as using sophisticated digital signals (such as fk filtering) and a phased array approach to access hard-to-reach places. .
In short, much research is still needed to present the novelties of NDT for computer components, as well as to overcome recent challenges. This would not only lead to efficient operations, but also to increased service life and efficient manufacturing.
References and further reading
Limble CMMS, 2021. What is non-destructive testing (NDT) and how is it used?. [Online]
Available at: https://limblecmms.com/blog/non-destructive-testing-ndt/
Quality Review, 2022. Non-destructive inspection of automotive computers. [Online]
Available at: https://www.qualitymag.com/articles/96016-non-destructive-inspection-of-automotive-computers
Nüßler, Dirk and Jonuscheit, Joachim. “Terahertz-Based Nondestructive Testing (NDT): Making the Invisible Visible”. 2021. tm- Technisches Messen. 88(4). 199-210. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1515/teme-2019-0100
Gupta, Mridul, et al. “Advances in Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Applications: A Review.” 2021. Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies. 1-22. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/2374068X.2021.1909332
Abdollahi, Farima, et al. “Non-destructive testing of materials by capacitive sensing.” 2021. Automotive. Eng. Available at: https://www.ndt.net/article/shmndt2020/papers/SHM-NDT_2020_paper_30.pdf.